Today's Chinese manufacturing has gradually gained the right to speak in various fields, even in some of the most sophisticated technologies. Chinese products have become a force that cannot be ignored. Domestically produced large aircraft, domestic aircraft carriers, high-speed railways, and space science and technology, which require many talents and technological reserves to develop, have all been overcome one by one. China's auto industry has experienced a gradual development from self-reliance to opening the country, from finding a joint venture to the final Chinese brand, from scratch, from small to large, from the birth, growth to maturity of the development process. Looking back at the ups and downs of the Chinese passenger car industry for more than 40 years, what kind of development has the Chinese brand experienced in the engine that is one of the three major automotive products?
Although with the establishment of the Republic, the automotive industry in New China has already begun, but because of historical reasons, the sedan as one of the symbols of "American imperialism" has always been "dismissed" by the Chinese people. Chinaâ€™s auto industry, which was built on the first five-year plan, had absolutely no arrangement for the production of cars. In the 1950s, the import market for cars from capitalist countries was closed down, and China entered an era when it did not produce cars or buy cars.
Car Breeding in China
The vehicles of the leaders and ministers rely on the â€œGisâ€ and â€œJimâ€ provided by the Soviet Union. The official vehicles of the local government mostly rely on the American jeep seized on the battlefield, and the peopleâ€™s purchase of family cars was no longer a dream at that time. general. It seems that there is no turning point for China. It is very difficult for China to have its own car brand in a short period of time. However, the turnaround came quickly. In the winter of 1957, Chairman Mao announced in Moscow that â€œChina must catch up with Britain in the 15 years of steel and other major products.â€
In addition to the V8, which is the red flag, the engine is basically based on imitation. These are also the epitome of China's passenger vehicle industry before the reform and opening up. Until the mid-1980s, the annual production of all domestic models such as the "Red Flag", "Shanghai" and "Beijing 212" added up to less than 5,000 units, which is less than the daily output of a large foreign company.
From this point of view, China's car industry has entered a period of stagnation, and it seems that it is difficult to make great progress in this development. In the era of no technology and no market, how can we promote the development of the Chinese car industry? In October 1987, an opportunity came with the chairman of the global auto giant General Motors headed to China.
The birth of China's power: The rise of cars in China, three major three joint venture brands
It was also in 1978 that Shanghai sent a report to the central government, hoping to introduce a foreign car assembly line and transform the Shanghai sedan factory. After obtaining the approval of the First Ministry of Machinery Industry and the State Council, the first Ministry of Machinery Industry took the lead to almost all the major automobile companies in the world, and the response obtained was not satisfactory. Only a handful of companies from Germany, including Volkswagen, were involved in Shanghai. The project expressed interest.
From January 1984 to July 1985, China's first-generation car joint ventures Beijing Jeep, Shanghai Volkswagen (now SAIC-Volkswagen) and Guangzhou Peugeot were established one after another, opening the curtain for the Chinese car industry. However, both Beijing Jeep and Guangzhou Peugeot disappeared into the long river of history due to losses. At the time, when Shanghai Volkswagen faced a gap of nearly half a century from the worldâ€™s advanced level, Chinese personnel realized that they had introduced advanced levels of modernization, while doing so. Learning ability can push the level of China's auto industry to a high level. It is also through the high-standard parts and components system established by the joint venture brand that it has made a good start for the Chinese car industry.
From the establishment of the joint venture brand, we can also see the layout of China's automobile industry in the initial stage of three major and three small: FAW, Dongfeng and SAIC formed three major auto companies, while GAC, BAIC and Tianqi are three small. At that time, in addition to these companies, the state theoretically no longer approved other companies for the production of cars, and no longer approved new production licenses. Some people may ask why they only developed the three companies, three companies and three small companies. The reason is actually very simple. At that time, Chinaâ€™s economy and materials were not enough to take on more auto manufacturing companies, and Chinaâ€™s foreign exchange reserves were relatively tight. Moreover, the bus-dominated market does not require so many products and the family car is not yet open. Therefore, six car manufacturers are enough for China at that time.
More Chinese brands appear to solve engine problems through procurement
Time flies, and it has arrived at the end of the 20th century. With the rapid development of Chinaâ€™s economy, the peopleâ€™s standard of living has been getting better and better. Having a private car is no longer something that everyone canâ€™t even dare to think about, but itâ€™s old. In the three cases, Santana and Jetta have high prices. The model of the Beverly hatchback is not so acceptable to Chinese people at that time. As a result, more and more businessmen are seeing business opportunities in the car market and lower car prices. Demand has also prompted private Chinese brands to spring up.
The 8A engine produced in early Tianjin was not banned from selling the 8A engine to other brands because Toyota did not have a complete vehicle layout in the country. Therefore, those newly established Chinese brands represented by Geely achieved the power match of the first models through the purchase of 8A engines, and successfully entered the sedan market, which also opened up the upsurge of Chinese brands outsourcing engines.
The introduction of domestic production is a relatively simplified version. The mechanical carburetor is changed to an electronic fuel injection system. The natural overhead suction method is adopted, and the single overhead camshaft design is simple. Because of its simple structure, there is no complicated technology. Determined its rugged features. Most of the models with larger brand sizes in China have purchased the Mitsubishi 4G63 engine. It can be said that in the early 21st century, Chinese brands that were established in the early stage have passed through the most difficult years with the Mitsubishi 4G63.
In 2003, Chery bought the Tritec engine jointly developed by Chrysler and Rover (the brand owned by BMW at the time) through a factory in Brazil. The maximum power of 116 hp was also used on BMW's MINI. Can be described as a genuine BMW engine. The "Chinese brand car with BMW's original imported engine" became the communicative language of Cowin at that time. Compared with other competitors, the level of power above it also made Cowin unique in the same displacement model.
The growth of China's power: Chinese brands began to attempt independent research and development
After experiencing the initial purchase of the brand or the imitation of the engine, most of the brand leaders have understood that the engine, as one of the three major automotive products, must master the core technology to be competitive, otherwise it could only be constrained by the engine supplier. Therefore, after the sales and profits have stabilized, Chinese brands have started to develop passenger car engines. Chery, which purchased the engine production line, has no doubt taken the lead.
Since 2002, Chery has cooperated with the world-famous Austrian AVL engine to jointly develop several engines with displacements ranging from 0.8L to 4.2L, and all emission levels have reached Euro IV emission standards that were formally implemented in 2005. At the end of 2005, Cheryâ€™s new engine, ACTECO, officially went offline. This is the first engine of Chinese brand development.
Today, the ACTECO series engine has been developed to the third generation, and its displacement also follows the international trend of ultra-small displacement and supercharged development. The latest 1.6TGDI engine was put on the line last year and was the first to meet the â€œNational Sixthâ€ standard. Chinese brand engine.
After learning that Jiangling will produce a 1.5T engine, many people think that they have directly brought in the tricycle engine of the joint venture partner Ford of the United States and made some minor changes, but in fact, Jiangling's 1.5T engine and There are many obvious differences in the structure of Ford's 1.5T engine. They are indeed their own R&D engines.
There are also some Chinese brands that introduce foreign advanced engine technologies in different ways, such as Changâ€™an, set up an overseas R&D center in the UK, employ a large number of local excellent technicians, and employ others for their own purposes, and then regularly issue batches of batches. Engineers from the Chongqing headquarters sent to the UK R&D center to work and study. They not only applied the skills and experience of foreign engineers in the current stage of R&D, but also made them the teachers of domestic young engineers.
With the ability to develop engines in a positive direction, and no longer rely on procurement or imitation, this indicates that the passenger vehicle industry in China has gradually matured after 30 years of development. However, the automobile industry is an industry that needs time to accumulate and precipitate. How can Chinese brands that have been under development for less than 40 years catch up with the automotive industry in Europe and America for more than a hundred years? With the slanting of national policies, vigorously developing new energy seems to be the answer for the Chinese auto industry to become the worldâ€™s first echelon.
- China's momentum matures: Chinese brands have begun to develop new energy
The new energy vehicles mentioned here are more precisely electric vehicles. Compared with the traditional internal combustion engine, the electric vehicle segment started relatively late, and foreign traditional car enterprises have established technical barriers in engines, gearboxes, and four-wheel drive structures for decades. Each manufacturer is in relative position. Because of the fair starting line competition, the probability of breakthrough is higher than that of traditional internal combustion engine technology.
Referring to the Chinese brand's new energy model, perhaps the first thing you think of is BYD from Shenzhen. This battery-carrying company has its own advantages in terms of new energy vehicles: the three electric systems can all be self-sufficient. In addition, the company itself has made early efforts in the field of new energy vehicles, and now it can be said to be a household name in the domestic new energy field.
In addition to these traditional car companies, another force must also mention that it is new car companies, of which the fastest-growing vehicles to the Weimar and Weimar. Many people mentioned that new car companies, the first reaction is "PPT repairer." Undoubtedly, at the beginning of the establishment of these companies, they all rely on beautiful PPT for roadshows and financing, but how many survived in the end? Therefore, "PPT repairer" is now also given a hint of pejorative. However, Wei Lai and Wei Ma have brought volume production products to everyone through both OEM and factory-built factories.
It is precisely because of the above various reasons that new energy vehicles have developed rapidly in China in recent years. Although the proportion of annual sales is not high, the growth rate is very obvious. Of course, with the advancement of technology, the car is no longer simply a means of transportation, and the emergence of the concept of networked cars allows cars to be more integrated into their lives. The role of car companies is gradually becoming more important. Changes have taken place. If you only know that you are not a good operator, you will find that in the era of innovation, "the wine is also afraid of the deep alley."
to sum up:
Forty years of reform and opening up witnessed China's passenger vehicle industry from scratch. Although we look back at history, we will find that both the good and the imperfect ones. But now, with the Chinese brand standing firm, we have begun to The momentum has been refreshed and it is moving in a better direction. This issue briefly reviews the history of the storm. Next, we will dig deep into Chinese brands and explore the changes in their dynamics during these 40 years. Please also continue to pay attention to the 40-year China Brand Power series. .
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